Natural Language Processing: A Historical Review
Paper’s reference in the IEEE style?
K. S. Jones, “Natural Language Processing: A Historical Review,” in Current Issues in Computational Linguistics: In Honour of Don Walker, A. Zampolli, N. Calzolari, and M. Palmer, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 1994, pp. 3–16.
How did you find the paper?
If applicable, write a list of the search terms you used.
- 'History of natural language processing
Was the paper peer reviewed? Explain how you found out.
This paper was published in Computational Linguistics and, while it is unclear whether it was peer-reviewed, it is likely that it was.
Does the author(s) work in a university or a government-funded research institute? If so, which university or research institute? If not, where do they work?
At the time of writing, the author worked in the Computer Laboratory at the University of Cambridge. K.S Jones worked at the Cambridge language research unit from the late 1950s and moved into the computer laboratory in 1974 before retiring in 2002. In 1999 Jones was made Professor of Computers and information.
What does this tell you about their expertise? Are they an expert in the topic area?
The author was an expert in natural language processing and information retrieval.
What was the paper about?
The paper is a review of the history of NLP from the late 1940's to 2001.
The work in the field took of in the 1950s and, from the mid 1980s the use of developing computing technology made it possible to implement new ideas.
Phase 1: late 1940s-late 1960s
- Machine translation including a rudimentary and limited experiment in the IBM Georgetown demonstration in 1954
- There were rudimentary computers, with limited resources, without high level programming languages and often using punch cards for data entry.
- Translation largely depending on word-for-word dictonary based processing which encountered obvious difficulties with semantic and syntactic ambiguity.
Phase 2: late 1960s-late 1970s
- Early implementations of artificial intelligence based systems began to appear in Phase 2 with question- answer systems such as BASEBALL
- Semantic oriented research
Phase 3: late 1970s-late 1980s
- As AI systems failed to deliver user-friendly and reliable NLP systems, Phase 3 saw the focus shift to computational grammar theory with links to grammatico-logical (differences within the grammar of meaning). Parsers, grammars etc began to become more readily available
Phase 4: late 1980s - 2000
- The final phase saw the beginning of the internet age and the availability of large volumes of machine readable text both from the internet and from new voice recognition systems. This availability of data, and developments in statistical and probabilistic language processing techniques lexical and corpus data
Current (e.g. 2001)
- machine translation of websites is common-place
If applicable, is this paper similar to other papers you have read for this assignment? If so, which papers and why?
This paper is related to the paper on Alan Turing, providing an outline of early NLP research and its development between 1950 and 2001.
If applicable, is this paper different to other papers you have read for this assignment? If so, which papers and why?
This paper is not related to the more technical papers reviewed such as:
- “COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE.” [Online]. Available: http://cogprints.org/499/1/turing.HTML. [Accessed: 06-Nov-2016].
What do these similarities and differences suggest? What are your observations? Do you have any new ideas? Do you have any conclusions?
This paper provides a history of NLP rather than a technical description of NLP methods.
This question is to be answered after your critical analysis is completed. Which sections (if any) of your critical analysis was this paper cited in?
This paper was used to inform the outline of NLP history in the introduction of the critical analysis.