- Most devices today are powered by litium ion batteries
- Electronics have improved at the pace of Moore's law, batteries have not
- Depending on construction, a lithium battery can store 100-250 watt-hours per kilogram—more than twice as much as a nickel-cadmium one. An electric car with a 24 kilowatt-hour lithium battery has a range of 175km (109 miles) or so.
- lithium batteries remain relatively expensive: typically around $500 per kilowatt-hour of capacity.... Many in the car industry believe the range needs to be close to 500km and the cost around $100 per kilowatt-hour before all-electric vehicles will move into the mass market.
- Some scientists are not sure if the energy density of lithium-ion batteries can be improved much beyond present levels without significant changes...
- Sakti3, a Michigan firm, aims to make big lithium-based ones at the $100 per kilowatt-hour scale—although it does not say when. Dyson, a British maker of vacuum cleaners, has been sufficiently impressed by the technology to invest $15m in the company recently. Volkswagen has put money into QuantumScape, a Silicon Valley company also working on solid-state batteries.
- Less than 0.01% of electricity is presently stored
- EOS Energy Storage, a New York startup. ... large container-sized zinc-based batteries for storage to New York and Californian utilities. These cost $160 a kilowatt-hour to store electricity, which the company says makes battery grid-storage financially worthwhile.
- Tesla is building a $5 billion “gigafactory” in Nevada in partnership with Panasonic, its Japanese battery supplier. Production should start next year and by 2020 reach the equivalent of enough lithium battery-packs to power 500,000 cars.
How batteries work